Dance anatomy and kinesiology
By Karen S. Clippinger
While the incidence of scoliosis for the general US adolescent population has been estimated to be between 10% and 16% (Akella et al., 1991; Trepman, Walaszek, and Micheli, 1990), studies of female ballet dancers have reported incidence of 24% (Warren et al., 1986), 33% (Hamilton et al., 1997), 40.7% (Akella et al., 1991), and 65% (Molnar and Esterson, 1997).
Why should dancers especially be concerned about scoliosis? A high rate of scoliosis has been reported among dancers, and a relationship between scoliosis, stress fracture rate secondary to amenorrhea (absence of a menstrual cycle) and delayed onset of menses has been demonstrated.
American Physical Therapy Association, “What Young People and Their Parents Need to Know About Scolisis,” 1986.
Scoliolis in ballet dancers
Priya Akella, Michelle P. Warren, Suhasini Jonnavithula, J. Brooks-Gunn
From: Medical Problems of Performing Artists: Volume 6 Number 3: Page 84 (September 1991)
Scoliosis and fractures in young ballet dancers. Relation to delayed menarche and secondary amenorrhea
MP Warren, J Brooks-Gunn, LH Hamilton, LF Warren, and WG Hamilton
In a survey of 75 dancers (mean age, 24.3 years) in four professional ballet companies, we found that the prevalence of scoliosis was 24 percent and that it rose with increases in age at menarche. Fifteen of 18 dancers (83 percent) with scoliosis had had a delayed menarche (14 years or older), as compared with 31 of 57 dancers (54 percent) without scoliosis (P less than 0.04). The dancers with scoliosis had a slightly higher prevalence of secondary amenorrhea (44 percent vs. 31 percent), the mean (+/- SD) duration of their amenorrhea was longer (11.4 +/- 18.3 vs. 4.1 +/- 7.4 months; P less than 0.05), and they scored higher on a questionnaire that assessed anorectic behavior. The incidence of fractures was 61 percent (46 of 75 dancers), and it rose with increasing age at menarche. Sixty-nine percent of the fractures that were described were stress fractures (mostly in the metatarsals), and their occurrence had an even stronger correlation with increased age at menarche. The incidence of secondary amenorrhea was twice as high among the dancers with stress fractures (P less than 0.01), and its duration was longer (P less than 0.05). In 7 of 10 dancers in whom endocrine studies were performed, the amenorrheic intervals were marked by prolonged hypoestrogenism. These data suggest that a delay in menarche and prolonged intervals of amenorrhea that reflect prolonged hypoestrogenism may predispose ballet dancers to scoliosis and stress fractures.
The influence of physical and sporting activities (PSA) on idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is still obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such an influence exists and if so, to determine its characteristics. Two hundred and one teenagers with IS and a control group of 192 adolescents completed an epidemiological questionnaire. Those practising gymnastics were more numerous in the IS group than in the control group. Moreover, the practice of gymnastics was chosen before IS was diagnosed. As gymnastic activities are considered neither as a therapy nor as a precursor of IS, the distribution observed could be linked to a common factor that both increases the likelihood of IS and favors the practice of gymnastics. Joint laxity (JL) may be such a common factor, and was therefore tested (wrist and middle finger) on 42 girls with IS and 21 girls of a control group. IS patients, practising gymnastics or not, showed a higher JL than the control group practising gymnastics or not. Furthermore, the groups practising gymnastic activities did not show higher JL levels than the other groups. Children with a high JL could be drawn toward gymnastics because of their ability to adapt to the constraints of this sport. Girls with a high JL may therefore be prone to developing IS. The fact that most teenagers with IS practise gymnastics could be related to a higher JL.
STUDY DESIGN: An anamnestic, clinical, radiographic study of 100 girls actively engaged in rhythmic gymnastics was performed in an attempt to explain the higher incidence and the specific features of scoliosis in rhythmic gymnastic trainees. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the anthropometry, the regimen of motion and dieting, the specificity of training in rhythmic gymnastics, and the growth and maturing of the trainees, and to outline the characteristics of the scoliotic curves observed. An etiologic hypothesis for this specific subgroup of scoliosis is proposed. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of scoliosis remains unknown in most cases despite extensive research. In the current classifications, no separate type of sports-associated scoliosis is suggested. METHODS: The examinations included anamnesis, weight and height measurements, growth and maturing data, eating regimen, general and back status, duration, intensity, and specific elements of rhythmic gymnastic training. Radiographs were taken in all the patients with suspected scoliosis. The results obtained were compared with the parameters of normal girls not involved in sports. RESULTS: A 10-fold higher incidence of scoliosis was found in rhythmic gymnastic trainees (12%) than in their normal coevals (1.1%). Delay in menarche and generalized joint laxity are common in rhythmic gymnastic trainees. The authors observed a significant physical loading with the persistently repeated asymmetric stress on the growing spine associated with the nature of rhythmic gymnastics. Some specific features of scoliosis related to rhythmic gymnastics were found also. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a separate scoliotic entity associated with rhythmic gymnastics. The results strongly suggest the important etiologic role of a "dangerous triad": generalized joint laxity, delayed maturity, and asymmetric spinal loading.
Biomechanical Evaluation of Dancers and Assessment of Their Risk of Injury
Lisa M. Schoene, DPM, ATC *
* Gurnee Podiatry & Sports Medicine, 351 S Greenleaf St, Ste C, Park City, IL 60085.
Professional dancers have a 90% risk of injury during their career. The lower extremity is involved in approximately 75% of the injuries sustained by dancers. Proper biomechanical evaluation, risk assessment, and prevention-oriented treatment are necessary to minimize future problems and promote a full and lasting recovery when an injury is sustained. This article outlines the in-office evaluation process and discusses backstage care. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 75–80, 2007)
Advice For Dancers - Brief Article
Dance Magazine, August, 2001 by Linda Hamilton
I am an aspiring professional dancer with a severe case of scoliosis. But I do know of several ballerinas with severe scoliosis and many more professional dancers with mild curves and highly successful careers. According to our research, one out of four dancers develops minor curves--not only because of genes, which account for the most severe cases, but also because of the intense exercise that often delays menarche, giving the deformity more time to develop because the spine is still growing. The real question is, why is scoliosis so common in dancers?
Hyperextended joints, also called double-jointedness, and apparently in the medical terminology is known as “joint laxity”, is actually fairly common. You just have to be attuned to notice it. I see people all the time, especially in the school system, that in my mind I’m thinking, “Oh, what a great ballerina they would have made”. I wouldn’t consider it abnormal, and neither does the medical field. Obviously, if you are far to one side of the spectrum of joint laxity, you may be able to be clinically diagnosed with some syndrome. However, most of these people with a clinical syndrome wouldn’t be able to keep up with the rigors of ballet or gymnastics. They would have pain and/or dislocated joints.
The Soviet system chose those children, the children didn’t choose it. Bulgaria, as a former communist country was very close to the Soviet Union, and like all good communist countries screened the children at a very early age into ballet and rhythmic gymnastics, based on many measurements. You can see the Kirov Ballet’s (now known as the Mariinsky) results from this very young screening as every member of their ballet is hyperextended (and the same height too!), very deliberately. Look at the right leg of every member of the Kirov’s corps de ballet, each knee joint clearly shows the hyperextension:
Here are a couple of pictures (the two lower pictures) that quite clearly shows the difference in looks between a straight-legged ballerina and a hyperextended ballerina. There is a significant difference in look. And ballet loves the hyperextended look, it is a sought after trait.
The Soviet system believed and still believes that talent is wasted in a less than perfect body for the endeavor and will only train those whose measurements “measure up”.
In the United State, anyone who wants to with the money to afford it can be trained, but here as Pooka says, those kids with the hyperextended joints will get better scores and are therefore more likely to continue on than those without those joints. Certainly, to make it to the highest levels of the sport, it seems to be a requirement. Look at these Russian rhythmic gymnasts’ noticeably hyperextended elbows from some of the Olympics and world games:
Just this weekend at the ballet studio, one of the moms whose daughters compete in both rhythmic gymnastics and ballet was complaining that the rhythmic gymnasts seemed to get higher scores just because they had hyperextended joints. She was concerned that her daughter did not have these joints.
Hypermobility generally results from one or more of the following:
* Misaligned joints
* Abnormally-shaped ends of one or more bones at a joint
* A Type 1 collagen defect (found in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan syndrome) results in weakened ligaments, muscles & tendons. This same defective process also results in weakened bones which may result in osteoporosis and fractures
* Abnormal joint proprioception (an impaired ability to determine where in space parts of the body are, and how stretched a joint is)
A hypermobile hand
The condition tends to run in families, suggesting that there may be a genetic basis for at least some forms of hypermobility. The term double jointed is often used to describe hypermobility, however the name is a misnomer and is not to be taken literally, as an individual with hypermobility in a joint does not actually have two separate joints where others would have just the one.
A hypermobile hand
Some people have hypermobility with no other symptoms or medical conditions. However, people with hypermobility syndrome may experience many difficulties. For example, their joints may be easily injured, be more prone to complete dislocation due to the weakly stabilized joint and they may develop problems from muscle fatigue (as muscles must work harder to compensate for the excessive weakness in the ligaments that support the joints).
Hypermobility may also be symptomatic of a serious medical condition, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, osteogenesis imperfecta, lupus, polio, downs syndrome, morquio syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis or myotonia congenita.
In addition, hypermobility has been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. During pregnancy certain hormones alter the physiology of ligaments making them able to stretch to accommodate the birthing process. For some women with hypermobility pregnacy related pelvic girdle pain can be debilitating.
Symptoms of hypermobility include a dull but intense pain around the knee and ankle joints and also on the soles of the feet. The condition affecting these parts can be alleviated by using insoles in the footwear which have been specially made for the individual after assessment by an orthopaedic surgeon.
Hypermobility syndrome is generally considered to comprise hypermobility together with other symptoms, such as myalgia and arthralgia. It is relatively common among children and affects more females than males.
A hypermobile hand
The current diagnostic criteria for hypermobility syndrome are the Brighton criteria, which incorporates the Beighton Score. The Beighton Score in an individual with HS usually falls between 4-6 out of 9. A diagnosis of Hypermobility Syndrome is only given when hereditary connective tissue disorders (such as Ehlers-Danlos and Marfan) have been ruled out.
Current thinking suggests that there are four factors: These four factors affect different people to varying degrees and each is explained in detail in the following sections.
* The shape of the ends of the bones: Some joints normally have a large range of movement, like the shoulder and hip. Both these joints look like a ball in a socket. If you inherit a shallow rather than a deep socket, you will have a relatively large range of movement, but only at these particular joints. If your hip socket is particularly shallow, then your hip may dislocate easily.
* Weak or stretched ligaments caused by protein or hormone problems: ligaments are made up of several types of protein fibre. These proteins include elastin, which gives elasticity, which may be altered in some people. Also, the female sex hormones alter the collagen proteins. Women are generally more supple just before a period, and even more so in the latter stages of pregnancy, because of the effect of a hormone called relaxin. This hormone allows the pelvis to expand so the head of the baby can pass through. Different races have differences in their joint mobility, which may reflect differences in the structure of the collagen proteins. People from the Indian sub-continent, for example, often have much more supple hands than Europeans.
* The tone of your muscles: The tone (or stiffness) of your muscles is controlled by your nervous system, and influences the range of movement in the joints. Some people use special techniques to change their muscle tone and increase their flexibility. Yoga, for example, can help to relax the muscles and make the joints more supple. Gymnasts and athletes can sometimes acquire hypermobility in at least some of their joints through the exercises they do in training.
* Your sense of joint movement (proprioception): if you find it difficult to detect the exact position of your joints with your eyes closed, then you may develop hypermobile joints because you are likely to over-stretch a joint before you notice you are doing so. 
Sharon, mother of identical twin girls with scoliosis
Hyperextension and ballet
I’ve noticed that this blog is getting a lot of hits from people looking for information about hyperextension and ballet, or hyperextended legs. While I’m not at all an expert (this is a very poor substitute for a teacher or physical therapist), here’s a little bit of information on it that I’ve gleaned from class and other sources. Because much of this is based on personal experience and observation, much of it could be wrong. Just a disclaimer.
Hyperextension and line
As I wrote in my older post, hyperextension–and hyperextended legs, in particular–is key to giving ballet its distinctive “look.” The aesthetics of a dancer’s body are all about lines. Even ballet training itself is very much about geometry and structure. Think of how methodical barre is, and how fixed positions are–croisé devant, en face, effacé devant, ecarté devant, derriere, and so on. So when a teacher, critic, or balletomane exclaims that a dancer has a “beautiful line,” they are referring to the lines that radiate from the center of the chest through the arms and legs (and the rest of the body as well, although it is most obvious in the arms and legs…best expressed by an arabesque!). They may also be referring to the outline of the body more generally, but I think that’s slightly different. I always visualized the curves of the arms and legs as flourishes on stick figures; the stick lines supply precision and structure, while the curves are beautiful.
The slight tilt of her head shows how deviations from the straight and exact line of the body can be very lovely.
Part of the charm of a tutu, of course, is that it enhances and frames these lines (a long floofy skirt, of course, would tend to hide a dancer’s line a little bit more). The tutu above serves in part as a horizontal line, to contrast with the dancer’s vertical ones.
When a dancer is said to have a “beautiful line,” she has an ideal balance of these various curvy, straight elements. Part of this also has to do with body proportions, height and weight as well, but that’s another post. I suppose one could imagine the “line” as solely straight or curvy, as you prefer, but I imagine the line as both.
It looks like an S. Or in my imagination, an S with an invisible vertical line through it: $.
Hyperextension in the legs (but also the arms) is therefore a key element of the curvier side of the equation, to endow the legs with that much-desired “S” shape.
Hyperextension & physical considerations
When someone claims to be “double jointed,” they are actually referring to very flexible joints that stretch very easily. Similarly, hyperextension is also due to flexibility in the joints of the body, which are of course especially noticeable in the elbows and knees. Hyperextended, flexible knees can make a dancer’s legs look gorgeous, by enhancing the curve of the leg.
Almost all professional dancers are hyperextended to some degree. Some people are simply born with hyperextension, but it can be developed somewhat through dancing and stretching, especially during childhood and the teen years. Encouraging hyperextension, however, is not always a good idea.
Two examples below. The first picture shows a straighter leg, and the second looks hyperextended. (I say show/look because part of this has to do with the posing and angle of the photograph; the dancers in reality may be more or less hyperextended)
While hyperextension can look beautiful, there is a definite trade-off. Dancers desire both strength and flexibility, but flexible dancers are sometimes weaker, and stronger dancers tend to have less flexibility. Having flexible joints means that your knees will be more prone to injury. Like having flexible feet with high insteps, a lot of strength is necessary to brace the knee when dancing to avoid injuries.
Hyperextension: what it feels like, what to do
In beginning ballet classes, teachers constantly lecture students about keeping the leg straight, and not bending the knee (while standing or turning). I tried to follow their directions, but straightening my legs to what my body felt was straightest sometimes caused a little painful pinch in my knees.
Last year, one of my teachers told me not to stand absolutely straight; she explained that to look straight, hyperextended knees should actually feel ever-so-slightly bent. She told me that she also has hyperextended legs, and that she had to be especially careful when stretching at the barre so as not to overstress the knee.
To avoid damaging my joints, I try to imagine holding weight and stretch in the glutes and leg muscles… I visualize the knee as a sort of a no-fly zone: a blank, happy, safe area where no stress is permitted.
When I am doing this, because I am hyperextended, it rarely looks like my knee is incorrectly bent. So ultimately, although you may feel that you are not keeping your legs straight, it probably has a somewhat better look than someone who has non-hyperextended legs
It’s also good to be aware that getting a perfect fifth position will be very very difficult. Although you may be tempted by push into it with the natural flexibility of your joints, this is putting your knees and ligaments at risk. Turnout should never, ever, come from manipulating the knee.
As always, I am not an authority of any kind on ballet. So if this is a big issue for anyone out there, you should probably go talk to a real teacher or doctor. Nonetheless, I hope this is useful in laying out a few of the why’s and how’s regarding hyperextension; I have been dancing for quite a while, but I never could find a summary of the subject.
If you are not hyperextended, you may not have that exact look, but you’ll be less likely to injure yourself. There are pros and cons to both sides of the coin. Good dancing does not come from hyperextension or the lack thereof; I would say effort and energy trumps all else in producing beautiful dancing.
Do Many Ballet Dancers Have Scoliosis?
The short answer to that question is, “yes.” And if you’re a dancer who has been diagnosed with scoliosis, you’re not alone.
Medical research shows that scoliosis is reported more often among female ballet dancers than among adolescents in the general US adolescent population (Clippinger 104). There might be several explanations for the higher rate among ballet dancers.
First, children who are diagnosed with scoliosis at a young age are sometimes encouraged to take ballet. These children had scoliosis before they began ballet—they didn’t develop it after beginning ballet. In her book Getting Started in Ballet: A Parent’s Guide to Dance Education, professional dancer Anna Paskevska wrote that ballet can help realign the vertebrae of the spine as it strengthens the muscles that surround the spine. Because of this, ballet can help a scoliosis curvature from getting worse.
Second, many ballet dancers have greater flexibility than the average person, and some may even experience hypermobility. Hypermobility is sometimes referred to as “double-jointedness,” and it describes a condition in which the joints easily move beyond the normal range. In many people, hypermobility doesn’t cause problems. But sometimes, hypermobility is linked with scoliosis (Quanbeck 1,2).
A third reason that so many ballet dancers experience scoliosis may be that they often have lower levels of the hormone estrogen. With a lower level of this hormone, many ballet dancers experience physical maturity later than other females. In this case, dancers may go through long growth spurts. And, during these periods of rapid growth, scoliosis may develop (Clippinger 104).
A fourth reason for scoliosis among ballet dancers may simply be that females who are more prone to scoliosis are also more likely to begin ballet. People who are taller and leaner are said to have a more “ectomorphic” body type. Because people of this body type may lack muscle strength, and because they do not always practice good posture, they may be more prone to developing scoliosis. Many people with the tall, lean, ectomorphic body type are naturally drawn to ballet, and this connection may increase the population of ballet dancers with scoliosis (Delavier 5).
Рекомендую уже цитированный мной пост http://community.livejournal.com/pro_fi
Ваша покорная слуга как раз тот самый пример, как не надо было делать. Надо признать, что как не надо - как раз не совсем моя вина. Деточка пару лет активно занималась хореографией и было "номинировалась" на поступление в балетное училище при Большом. Тогда в растяжке было поверье что: так как детские суставы/связки/мышцы более эластичны и регенерируют быстрее (что верно в принципе), то тянуться допустимо и желательно эдакими "пружинистыми рывками/потягиваниями с фиксацией принудительной весом взрослого человека в точке предельного растяжения (что, как нынче доказано, весьма и весьма травмоопасно). Лично я "благополучно рваная" в правом подколенном и паховом сухожилии.
Любой атлет продвинутого уровня старается выйти на идеальный вариант развития мышечного чувства и чутья своего тела настолько, чтоб реально понимать идущие от него сигналы. И особенно это важно именно в растяжке. Сложно придумать что-нибудь еще более травмодоступное.
Поэтому до сих пор меня приводят в состояние благоговейного ужаса граждане, залихватски забрасывающие ноги в разные стороны с последующими отчаянными, маховыми наклонами корпуса (причем зачастую с кривейшей спиной) к тянущейся конечности. Люди! Вам с ними (конечностями) еще дальше жить надо :-)!
С аналогичным примером получения специфической "девочковой" травмы можно ознакомиться здесь: http://books.google.com/books?id=AgRkvi
У пациентки диагностирована слабость правой подвдошно-поясничной мышцы. Оказалось, что она занимается танцами, регулярно делает растяжки, и одно из упражнений - шпагат, который она выполняет на одну сторону больше, чем на другую (очевидно, из-за другой ранее полученной травмы).
Ещё информация из частного источника - при осмотре одной группы танцоров в СНГ искривления позвоночника некоторой степени были обнаружены практически у всех.
У меня травма позвоночника была 18 лет назад во время занятий худ.гимнастикой. Сначала был левосторонний лордоз, теперь уже протрузия в двух местах и сильные боли. Один вертеброневролог из октябрьской больнице в Киеве сказал, что раз у меня нет остеохондроза, значит у меня просто депрессия.
У моего сына 2 степень сколиоза. Ребенку 9 лет. По рентгену – правостороннее искривление 18 градусов с ротацией позвоночника в грудном отделе. Рекомендации врача – плавание, физиопроцедуры раз в 3 - 4 месяца, массаж.
Сын занимается спортивными бальными танцами 3 раза в неделю по 1,5 часа.
Врач говорил об освобождении от физкультуры школьной, но мы не стали этого делать. До выявления сколиоза занимался 2 года спортивной гимнастикой.
В 4 года мама отдала на танцы, танцевала, просто супер), осанка замечательная, девочка стройная). В 9 лет мама шила сарафан и заметила ассиметрию, повела на снимок, а там уже 1-2 степень. И тут началось:ортопеды всевозможные, мануальщики, бабки, экстрасенсы....Остановились на Касьяне (ездили к нему через каждые 3 месяца в течение 3х лет). Дома делала зарядку, занималась плаванием КМС выполнила, медальки на республиканских соревнованиях получала.
Все начиналось так: когда мама приехела в роддом со мной почему-то все места были заняты, вернее их не было вообще:)) (наверное весна - и вправду время любви - я в феврале родилась). Ее положили в коридоре "подождать", в итоге забыв про нее совсем, через полчаса пробегавшая мимо медсестра заметила - "о, боже, у нее уже голова торчит. Но все не так плохо - всего лишь с кривошеей я родилась, а так как маман у меня врач: окулист правда, но все ж по своим знакомым потаскала, сама массажи мне поделала и все просто супер - не следа от кривошеи.
В 6 лет пошла на спорт. гимнастику - на шпагаты садилась, рыбки делала, лентачки, обручи и все вроде здорово, но в 7 лет (1 класс) меня отправили в муз. школу по классу аккордеона!!!! И в итоге тока в 12 лет благодаря сестре, сходивший на выставку бодиарта, очень захотевшей поэкспереминтировать все это дело на мне, заметила - ты чет кривовастенькая. Я бегом к маме - она аж ахнула. В общем 25 градусов, подсуетившись сделали мне инвалидность.
Начиналось все хорошо: спортивная гимнастика в 7 лет. Мама хотела, чтобы я была гибкой, подвижной и спортивной. И кто знает, как бы все сложилось, если бы мы не опоздали с набором. В итоге меня поместили в группу, которая уже занималась около месяца или двух. И меня усиленно начали "натаскивать" до остальных ребятишек. Усиленные нагрузки дали о себе знать: через полгода после начала занятий на осмотре у меня обнаружили нарушение осанки. Массаж, ЛФК, освобождение от физкультуры... В 14 лет прибавился специализированный центр по лечению позвоночника. Как раз перестройка организма, скачок роста, прогрессирование сколиоза в 2 раза. Сейчас я думаю, что, возможно, именно занятия в этом центре и появление хоть какой-то мышечной массы "спасли" меня от еще большего прогрессирования. В 17 лет получила направление на консультацию в Питер. Мама узнала в интеренет об этом институте и решила, что нужно съездить. Через полгода легла в больницу, месяц была подготовка, и за 2 недели до 18-летия - 10.03.05 - меня прооперировали. Выросла я на 7 см, но потом "осела" на 3.
Родилась в 1969г. здоровенькой. Росла и развивалась до школы вполне нормально. Только была очень маленькой и худенькой (таковой, впрочем, и осталась). Во втором классе меня приметил тренер гимнастики. Я уже и забыла подробности тренировок, но последнюю не забуду никогда - я на шпагате, а тренер всем весом навалился на плечи. Вот такая растяжка...Ума хватило бросить эти экзекуции. Чувствую, что все мои проблемы оттуда. И падение было еще сильное.
Начала я заниматься гимнастикой с 1-го кл. В школу пришла тренер и "выбрала" меня. Была я очень миниатюрная и гибкая - просто находка для гимнастики. Потом начались каждодневные тренировки до полного изнеможения. Я до сих пор содрогаюсь, вспоминая вес тренера на своих плечах при посадке на шпагат. Ну, а травмы при падениях с брусьев и бревна самое обычное дело. Бросила гимнастику сама, не выдержала нагрузок. Тренер потом в школу приходила, всё перспективную девочку надеялась вернуть. А вскорости и сколиоз нашёлся. Естественно, нигде в справках не стоит, что это следствие спортивной гимнастики. К такому выводу я сама пришла уже взрослой, анализируя все возможные причины. То, что он не наследственный я практически уверена. Ни у кого из родственников, ближайших или дальних, сколиоза нет.