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C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Testing: ,
Lipid Profile (Panel): provides information about the amounts four types of fats in the blood. Total cholesterol,
HDL-cholesterol (often called good cholesterol), LDL-cholesterol (often called bad cholesterol), and triglycerides. Non fasting blood cholesterol
Glucose (сахар)
Complete Blood Count - red & white blood cells, hemoglobin. Helps to diagnose anemia
Blood pressure
Thyroid screening
DXA osteoporosis screen, Bone density test
PSA - blood levels of prostate-specific antigen, a protein.
TSH test
Liver Function Tests:
Albumin, serum
Alkaline phosphatase, serum
Bilirubin, direct
Bilirubin, total
Protein, total, serum
Allergen Profile
Kidney function test: What do elevated creatinine and BUN indicate? :
Elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels are likely evidence of decreased kidney function. Creatinine and urea nitrogen are waste products that your kidneys normally remove from your blood. If your kidneys are not working properly, these substances may build up in your blood.

Autoimmune Disease: ,
An ANA test is used along with your symptoms, physical examination, and other tests to find an autoimmune disease. An antinuclear antibodies (ANA) test is done to help identify problems with the immune system, such as
Immune-complex-mediated diseases: antibodies are produced against proteins in the body, these combine into large molecules which circulate around the body. In systemmic lupus erythematosus (SLE) antibodies are formed against several components in the cell’s nucleus (hence the anti-nuclear antibody test (ANA) for SLE). Most notably antibodies are made against the body’s double stranded DNA, and form circulating soluble complexes of DNA and antibody, which break down in skin causing an increased sensitivity to ultraviolet light and a variety of signs. As the blood is filtered through the kidneys the complexes are trapped in the glomeruli and blood vessels, causing the kidney to leak protein - glomerulonephritis. They also cause leakage in other blood vessels, and there may be hemorrhaging, as well as accumulating in synovial fluid and causing signs of arthritis and joint pain. Rheumatoid arthritis results from immune complexes (IgM class antibody called rheumatoid factor) against part of the animal’s own immune system (part of its IgG molecules). These form complexes which are deposited in the synovia of the joint spaces causing an inflammatory response, joint swelling and pain. The collagen and cartilage of the joint breaks down and is eventually replaced by fibrin which fuses the joints - ankylosis.

Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP): a dangerously low level of platelets - either due to an increase in antibody and complement-mediated phagocytosis of platelets in the spleen, bone marrow and liver, or decreased production due to antibody and/or complement mediated phagocytosis of platelet stem cells (megakaryocytes) in the bone marrow. The low platelet levels lead to spontaneour bleeding, often nose bleeds or petechiation (bleeding just under the skin and mucous membranes) are seen. Blood in the stool, urine or vomit is less common
Autoimmune diseases exist when a person's body produces abnormal cells - anti-nuclear antibodies, or ANA - which, instead of attacking the legitimate infectious and viral invaders of the body, turn on the body, itself.

Rheumatoid Arthritis exists when joint linings are directly affected, causing pain, swelling and stiffness of the joints.

Psoriasis (and some other skin disorders) - affect the skin, and sometimes the eyes, nails and joints.

Schleroderma - exists when the skin and blood vessels begin to thicken. Raynaud's (severe cold in fingers and toes) is very often also present. Symptoms may include sensitivity of fingers and toes to the cold, skin color changes, pain, and sometimes ulcers of the fingertips or toes.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (pronounced LOO-puhs er-uh-THEM-uhtuhs; see lupus entry) is a general autoimmune disorder. The condition occurs primarily in young and middle-aged women.

Pemphigus vulgaris (pronounced PEM-fi-guhs vuhl-GARE-uhs) is a group of autoimmune disorders that affects the skin.

Myasthenia (pronounced MY-uhs-THEE-nee-uh) gravis is caused when messages from nerve cells to muscles are disrupted. Muscles become weakened.

Scleroderma (pronounced SKLEER-uh-DIR-muh) causes a toughening and hardening of connective tissue.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition that causes damage to red blood cells (see anemia entry).

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

There is currently no way to prevent any of the autoimmune disorders

Treatments differ for each type of autoimmune disorder. However, there is one treatment that is common to many forms of autoimmune disorders. That treatment is the use of drugs to reduce the inflammation, swelling, and pain that accompanies most autoimmune disorders. Inflammation occurs when antibodies attack and irritate tissues. Some common drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, help reduce inflammation and pain. Aspirin should not be given to children due to the danger of contracting Reye's syndrome (see Reye's syndrome entry). A more powerful medication is one of the many steroid medications. But steroids have some serious long-term side effects, and they are generally used only in severe cases or in situations where milder drugs are ineffective
БИОХИМИЧЕСКИЕ МЕТОДЫ ДИАГНОСТИКИ дисплазии соединительной ткани

Популярнее всего определение оксипролина и гликозамингликанов в суточной пробе мочи. Все это - маркеры распада коллагена, достаточно объективные и точные критерии ДСТ. Для подтверждения диагноза их используют редко, нет необходимости, а вот для контроля в ходе реабилитационной терапии они удобны. И биохимических и молекулярно-генетических методик множество, но все они дороги и не используются в рутинной практике. Диагноз ДСТ не сложен, нужны только осведомленность врача и желание взглянуть на пациента повнимательнее. Оглянитесь на окружающих и дерзайте.


* Insulin
* Dehydroepiandrosterone
* Melatonin
* Angiotensinogen
* Insulin-like Growth Factor
* Thrombopoietin

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These measure inflammation in the body:
Genetic Testing
Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z


Protein Metabolism
Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes other atoms. They form the cellular structural elements, are biochemical catalysts, and are important regulators of gene expression. Nitrogen is essential to the formation of twenty different amino acids, the building blocks of all body cells. Amino acids are characterized by the presence of a terminal carboxyl group and an amino group in the alpha position, and they are connected by peptide bonds.

Digestion breaks protein down to amino acids. If amino acids are in excess of the body's biological requirements, they are metabolized to glycogen or fat and subsequently used for energy metabolism. If amino acids are to be used for energy their carbon skeletons are converted to acetyl CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle for oxidation, producing ATP. The final products of protein catabolism include carbon dioxide, water, ATP, urea, and ammonia.

Vitamin B6 is involved in the metabolism (especially catabolism) of amino acids, as a cofactor in transamination reactions that transfer the nitrogen from one keto acid (an acid containing a keto group [-CO-] in addition to the acid group) to another. This is the last step in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids and the first step in amino acid catabolism. Transamination converts amino acids to L-glutamate, which undergoes oxidative deamination to form ammonia, used for the synthesis of urea. Urea is transferred through the blood to the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

The glucose-alanine cycle is the main pathway by which amino groups from muscle amino acids are transported to the liver for conversion to glucose. The liver is the main site of catabolism for all essential amino acids, except the branched-chain amino acids, which are catabolized mainly by muscle and the kidneys. Plasma amino-acid levels are affected by dietary carbohydrate through the action of insulin, which lowers plasma amino-acid levels (particularly the branched-chain amino acids) by promoting their entry into the muscle.

Body proteins are broken down when dietary supply of energy is inadequate during illness or prolonged starvation. The proteins in the liver are utilized in preference to those of other tissues such as the brain. The gluconeogenesis pathway is present only in liver cells and in certain kidney cells.

Disorders of amino acid metabolism include phenylketonuria, albinism, alkaptonuria, type 1 tyrosinaemia, nonketotic hyperglycinaemia, histidinaemia, homocystinuria, and maple syrup urine disease.

Cellular nutritional testing ( , - Testing for Nutritional Deficiencies

Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis (CDSA)

Фосфор неорганический
Повышение содержания фосфора в крови отмечается:

- при почечной недостаточности;
- гипопаратиреозе;
- гипервитаминозе D ;
- акромегалии;
- заболеваниях почек.

• Для уточнения диагноза НЕОБХОДИМО сдать:

- общий анализ крови;
- общий анализ мочи;
- биохимический анализ крови (общий белок, альбумин, общая кислая фосфатаза, глюкоза, мочевина , холестерин общий, креатинин, концентрацию кальция, натрия, калия, магния.);
- определение концентрации гормонов в сыворотке крови: инсулин, пролактин, тиреотропный гормон (ттг), фолликулостимулирующий гормон (фсг), лютеинизирующий гормон (лг), тироксин (т4), трийодтиронин (т3), свободного т4 и т3, эстрогены: прогестерон, эстрадиол, тестостерон ;
- кровь на определение протромбинового индекса;
- кровь на определение тромбинового времени;
- кровь на определение фибриногена;

Уменьшение содержания фосфора в крови отмечается:

- при гиперпаратиреозе;
- при гиповитаминозе D (рахит, остеомаляция);
- при синдроме мальабсорбции;
- при рахите;
- остеомаляции (размягчении костей);
- при голодании;
- при поражениях печени;
- при диабетическом кетоацидозе и наследственной гипофосфатемии;
- при беременности и гипотиреозе.

• Для уточнения диагноза НЕОБХОДИМО сдать:

- общий анализ крови;
- общий анализ мочи;

- биохимический анализ крови (общий белок, альбумин, глюкоза, ЛДГ, общая кислая фосфатаза, простатическая кислая фосфатаза, уровень АСТ, АЛТ, ГТП, амилаза сыворотки, мочевина , прямой и общий билирубин, холестерин общий, креатинин, липаза сыворотки, концентрацию кальция, натрия, калия, магния.);

- определение концентрации гормонов в сыворотке крови: инсулин, пролактин, тиреотропный гормон (ттг), фолликулостимулирующий гормон (фсг), лютеинизирующий гормон (лг), тироксин (т4), трийодтиронин (т3), свободного т4 и т3, эстрогены: прогестерон, эстрадиол, тестостерон ;

- кровь на определение протромбинового индекса;
- кровь на определение тромбинового времени;
- кровь на определение фибриногена;
- определение концентрации ХГЧ;
- исследование сыворотки крови для количественного определения CA 19-9.

Интерпретация анализов -

денситометрия - проверка на содержание кальция в костях

UPD: Глютен См. Целиакия, Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability - реакция у всех есть, просто при целиакии сильнее выражена.

Metabolic Typing

UPD 2: 09/08/2011 - лаб какая-то - ещё одна лаб с консультациями, цены ломовые - какая-то известная тётка нутришионист, старая - ХОРОШИЙ САЙТ - ВСЁ ПРО АНАЛИЗЫ - анализы, вроде бы есть и интернашенал
Tags: Диагностика, Фармакология

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