Scottish National Paediatric Spine Centre, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, UK.
Evidence reported in an earlier paper suggests that infants introduced to indoor heated swimming pools in the first year of life show an association with spinal asymmetries including progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in normal subjects vertical spinous process asymmetry. Indoor heated swimming pools may contain a risk factor that predisposes some infants to develop such spinal asymmetries years later. What the risk factor(s) may be and its possible portal of entry into the infant's body are unknown and possibilities are examined. New teenage controls were obtained after mothers of AIS patients mentioned that they had taken their child to an infant swim class. In a further group of 18 normal teenagers introduced to an indoor heated swimming pool in the first year of life, 15 had vertical spinous process asymmetry. This prevalence of 83% of those at risk confirms our previous observation of vertical spinous process asymmetry in 61% of
teenagers who were introduced to indoor heated swimming pools in the first year of life. Subject to confirmation of our observations consideration should be given to chemical risk factors, possible portals of entry, toxicology, environmental epigenomics and disease susceptibility to altered spinal development. If the risk factor is confirmed there may ultimately be a place for the prevention of AIS in some subjects.
GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. email@example.com
Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of
6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming.
When swimming, affected individuals may perceive that water temperature differs below and above the umbilicus. Lhermitte's sign (tingling on neck flexion) can be demonstrated at any stage. Basilar impression can cause headache with coughing, trigeminal neuralgia, loss of function of the extremities, or parasthesias. At its most severe levels of involvement, sleep apnea and death can occur.
Sports medicine literature often refers to "swimmer's shoulder." Increasingly, however, it is evident that swimmer's shoulder is a spectrum of maladies whose underlying origins may be incidental to athletic activity.
Swimming injuries. An overview
Most injuries and complaints encountered in swimming athletes are repetitive microtrauma or overuse, and successful management does not usually require surgical intervention. Rest and other measures to reduce inflammation are often required. Many injuries originate from faulty techniques or mechanisms, and an assessment must be made of the swimming biomechanics of any injured athlete to identify faults that may contribute to injury. It is also important to look at the total training programme of the athlete to identify other factors, such as weight training or dry land programmes, that may be contributing to injury. It is important to understand that, while rest or reduced training may be necessary, every effort to keep the swimmer "in the water' should be made, as cessation of training may lead to a rapid detraining effect.
The diagnosis of swimmer's shoulder has long connoted a malady usually perceived to be impingement syndrome. However, as greater understanding of shoulder mechanics and diagnosis has been applied to the shoulder of swimmers, it is apparent that they too suffer from a variety of problems common to all overhead sports. This paper describes the functional instability problem of labral damage in the swimmer. Isolated labrum damage is part of a spectrum of anterior shoulder problems. This lesion is particularly disturbing to the swimmer, and its successful management through arthroscopic means is a boon. Correct diagnosis is paramount if a treatment is to be successful. The lesion in swimmers is described as well as its diagnosis by examination and computerized tomography (CT) arthrography.
При выполнении каждого гребка рукой (исключение составляет брасс) происходит полное отведение и вращение плечевого сустава. Это создает неблагоприятные условия для мышц, стабилизирующих плечевой пояс и находящихся под постоянным напряжением. Согласно статистике, травмами плечевого сустава страдают от 40 до 60 процентов пловцов высшей квалификации, причем у многих из них боли в суставе приобрели хронический характер.
Одним из самых популярных силовых упражнений в воде стало плавание с помощью ручных лопаток. Его включают в программу своей подготовки три четверги опрошенных пловцов. Но, что интересно, примерно каждый пятый из них полагает, что именно плавание с лопатками оказалось причиной травм плечевых суставов. Особенно характерны эти жалобы для начального периода тренировочного цикла.