Healthy_back (healthy_back) wrote,
Healthy_back
healthy_back

Триптофан и капелька про антидепрессанты

https://www.livestrong.com/article/507562-what-are-the-dangers-of-tryptophan/
https://www.supplements-and-health.com/tryptophan-side-effects.html

Триптофан превращается в организме в мелатонин и серотонин. И то, и другое — наши друзья. Однако:

Триптофан в больших количествах токсичен для печени, а мелатонин способствует дистрофии сетчатки.

Также сам триптофан может повреждать хрусталик.

Триптофан нельзя принимать днём, даже изредка — он реагирует с ультрафиолетом, обладая потенциалом повреждать глаза и кожу.

Триптофан блокирует GABA и понижает синтез белков. До некоторой степени скомпенсировать это помогает витамин В6.

Триптофан провоцирует воспаление вообще и соединительной ткани в частности (Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome (EMS)) и боли в мышцах, соответственно.

Далее по второй ссылке много информации про антидепрессанты-наебалово и то, что от передозировки серотонином может быть даже смертельный исход, а без передозировки — дегенерация мозга и ещё куча побочных эффектов. Хотя, триптофаном такого эффекта вряд ли, конечно, можно достичь, не говоря о том, что во второй половине статьи написано, что триптофан не так просто превратить в серотонин, он может ещё превратиться в токсичные метаболиты.

Цитата про антидепрессанты:

Closely related to these tryptophan side effects, in experiments it has been established that serotonin is capable of (temporarily) impairing the protective blood-brain barrier (Winkler, et al., 1995; Abbott, 2000; Sharma, 2004) which could lead to an increase in toxic events in the brain, such as edema (brain swelling) and brain degeneration (Sharma, 2004).

A researcher stated in his analysis that:

“Elevation of plasma and tissue serotonin occurs under a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions.” (Sharma, 2004)

Concerning acute serotonin side effects and serotonin toxicity...

One of the worst case scenarios of an overload of serotonergic activity (“serotonin overload”) is the occurrence of "the serotonin syndrome" (symptoms usually appear within a day or a few days), which kills numerous people every year (Young, et al., 2008). Usually, this is an outcome of doctor prescribed polypharmacy whereas a person ingests numerous serotonin-boosting medications (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs), or instances of great exposure to a single serotonin-augmenting agent (Ables & Nagubilli, 2010).

What is serotonin? Serotonin is a neurotransmitter ("nerve messenger"). Some of the classic symptoms of the serotonin syndrome (a.k.a "5-HT syndrome") are mental and neuromuscular agitation, tremors, convulsions, confusion incoordination, seizures, fever, and organ failure (Ables & Nagubilli, 2010).

Many years ago researchers (e.g., Jacobs, 1991) have already warned that the external stimulation or manipulation of the serotonergic system by psychotropic drugs raises the levels of serotonin beyond the range from living under normal conditions, more reflective of a pathological (=diseased) state.

Yet, since around the 1980s, when the medical-pharmaceutical industry began to heavily promote the type of psychotropic drugs that specifically raise brain serotonin activity such the SSRI antidepressants, it has become "common knowledge" that serotonin –coined the “mood-lifting hormone", the “happiness hormone", the “feel-good hormone”, the “happy molecule”, or the “happy neurotransmitter"– is the antidote to depression.

The perpetual inundation of the public with the serotonin deficiency-depression paradigm, also known as "the serotonin hypothesis" (in support of the "chemical imbalance theory" of mental disorders), an ideology that has been fabricated and pushed by big corporate medicine (Breggin, 2001; Lacasse & Leo, 2005; Kirsch, 2009; Gøtzsche, 2013; Fiddaman, 2019), has earned the drug companies a fortune ever since from the sale of serotonin-stimulating medications or "happy pills" (i.e., SSRI drugs).

However, independent investigators such as David Healy, MD, the author of several books on psychoactive drugs, stated regarding the notion of chemical depression that:

"[...] it is now widely assumed that our serotonin levels fall when we feel low [...]. But there is no evidence for any of this, nor has there ever been." (Healy, 2004) [emphasis added]

Another researcher and author of a number of books on SSRI medications and other antidepressants, Peter R. Breggin, MD, pointed out that:

“Science does not possess the technology to measure biochemical imbalances in the living brain. The biochemical imbalances speculation is actually a drug company marketing campaign to sell drugs.” (Breggin, 2001) [emphasis added]

(But it isn't uncommon for the medical establishment to spread and sustain myths based on vested interests. Other examples are the myth of natural hormone replacement therapy with estrogen, or the myth that mammograms do little harm and prevent women from succumbing to an early death from breast cancer -see The Mammogram Myth: The Independent Investigation Of Mammography The Medical Profession Doesn't Want You To Know About.)

Yet, this type of information has been seldom brought up in discussions about tryptophan side effects, the alleged “happiness neurotransmitter” serotonin, and so-called “brain chemistry disorders”.

A 2017 publication of the prestigious Linus Pauling Institute (LPI) mirrored the lack of real evidence about the brain's physiological-metabolic workings (“brain chemistry”). In a LPI article on metabolomics or “metabolic profiling”, the study of metabolites in cells, urine, blood and other biological fluids of tissue (e.g. the brain) and their potential relationships to specific diseases or physiological status, it said:

“[...] we are still not able to identify the majority of metabolites in a given biological sample.” (Maier & Stevens, 2017)

In 2020 the American investigative reporter Jon Rappoport wrote this in an article:

"In their [=allopathic orthodox medicine] wretched track record, we come to the whole subject of medical psychiatry. This is where real and deep human suffering –from many different causes– is professionally re-channeled into arbitrary categories of so-called “mental disorders,” requiring treatment with devastating drugs. The fraud is wall to wall. […]. The first question to ask is: do these mental disorders have any scientific basis? There are now roughly 300 of them. They multiply like fruit flies. An open secret has been bleeding out into public consciousness for the past ten years. THERE ARE NO DEFINITIVE LABORATORY TESTS FOR ANY SO-CALLED MENTAL DISORDER. No defining blood tests, no urine tests, no saliva tests, no brain scans, no genetic assays. And along with that: ALL SO-CALLED MENTAL DISORDERS ARE INVENTED, CONCOCTED, NAMED, LABELED, DESCRIBED, AND CATEGORIZED by committees of psychiatrists, from menus of human behaviors. […]. All diagnoses are based on arbitrary clusters or menus of human behavior. The drugs are harmful, dangerous, toxic. Some of them induce violence. Suicide, homicide.” (Rappoport, 2020) [explanation added]

In his book "Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime: How Big Pharma Has Corrupted Healthcare" (2013) author and research scientist Peter Gøtzsche, MD, explained that "the chemical imbalance hoax" is inescapably showcased by the fact that the number of mentally disabled has skyrocketed since the introduction of psychotropic medications (antidepressants and antipsychotics) whereas you would expect to find the exact opposite if these drugs were to actually correct an alleged chemical imbalance in the brain. In fact, Gøtzsche argued that these drugs create psychological disorders, especially the way they are being prescribed (Gøtzsche, 2013).

These were also among the findings and conclusions brought forward a few years earlier in some other books. In their exhaustive efforts, the authors, Joanna Moncrieff, MD, Grace Jackson, MD, and Robert Whitaker, solidly documented, with many brain images, illustrations, graphs, and references, that psychopharmaceuticals, particularly on an ongoing long-term protocol of usage (the mode these drugs are commonly used), cause brain shrinkage, neurodegeneration, dementia, premature death, and are the culprit for the epidemic of mental illness and disability in America (Moncrieff, 2008; Jackson, 2009; Whitaker, 2010 & 2011).

Truth be told, there is disturbing, sound evidence on how the intake of SSRI drugs (e.g., Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft) can lead to violence, suicide, and (enduring) sexual dysfunction, such as low libido, impotence (erectile dysfunction), and genital numbness (Breggin, 1995 & 2001; Glenmullen, 2000; Healy, 2004; Burwell & Stith, 2008; Gøtzsche, 2013; Healy, et al., 2018; Prescrire, Feb-2020). The drug company that created Prozac, for example, already knew before they began to market the drug worldwide to the unsuspecting public that it significantly increases the risk of suicide (Healy, 2004).

In decisive corroboration, former US Senator John DeCamp, (1941-2017), an attorney, businessman, and author, described clandestine operations of fact suppression and information control surrounding the truth about SSRI antidepressants by the criminal colluding US state-medical allopathy establishment (i.e., the "trustworthy" "objective" official medical apparatus).

DeCamp had represented various victims, or victims' families, of the infamous Columbine massacre of 1999 –a.k.a the Columbine high school shooting– as a lawyer in court (DeCamp, 2006). By way of that function he was one of very few select people who had witnessed exclusive evidence (“certain Columbine materials and tapes”) others never got to see (DeCamp, 2006). In 2005 the American legislator explained the real reason for this extreme secrecy about the Columbine shooting, referring to publicly hidden politically inconvenient Columbine truths:

“More court action has been done to keep everything secret and destroy the depositions than anything I have seen in my 40 years of court activity.” (DeCamp, 2006) [emphasis added]

And...

“[...] the second "crime" of Columbine has been the continuing and strong suppression of the information and evidence by the Legal System which keeps parents and the public from really ever knowing the truth –or at least having a real opportunity to make judgments as to what the truth is, by having available all the information from which to make judgments.” (DeCamp, 2006) [emphasis added]

DeCamp then goes on to say in what appears to be a state of utmost earnestness and with a strong sense of moral necessity:

“I believe –as sure as I believe anything on this earth– the claim I made in a lawsuit in federal court in which I alleged, on behalf of the Columbine children, that the Harris boy's actions [=one of the two shooters], including particularly and especially his final act of suicide, were caused or influenced to occur by the antidepressant drugs [=SSRIs] he was taking. […]. But, of course when I had this lawsuit going, none of this information was public knowledge but was all denied by the drug companies.” (DeCamp, 2006) [emphasis & explanations added]

In 2006 a drug maker of one of these SSRIs admitted that the medication raises the risk of suicide eight times (Jay, 2010).

In an interview Breggin stated that:

"One of the things that in the past had been known about depression is that it very, very rarely leads to violence. It's only been since the advent of these new SSRI drugs that we have murderers, sometimes even mass murderers, taking antidepressant drugs."

In juxtaposition to serotonin-mediated tryptophan side effects in terms of suicide and violent behavior, what's often forgotten by the commercialized culture is that the most widely prescribed types of pharmaceutical medications, cholesterol-lowering statin drugs ("statins"), taken by millions of people, also increase the rate of suicides and homicides, a solid link disregarded by corporate consensus medicine (Diamond & Ravnskov, 2015) and rarely ever considered to play a role in acts of violence or suicides.

Cholesterol is an essential nutrient for the body and the brain, and low blood cholesterol status is associated with major depression and suicidal behavior whereas high cholesterol levels help to prevent these conditions (Diamond & Ravnskov, 2015). Mood and cognitive disorders are among the most well-known statins' side effects (Diamond & Ravnskov, 2015). (For more information on the mostly unknown but real and serious adverse statin side effects, many of which are shared by the diet supplement garcinia cambogia extract, see my article "Do Garcinia Cambogia Side Effects Boost Diabetes?" –direct link to it at the end of this article under Recommended next pages.)

(A more general aside to this article on tryptophan side effects: Big Allopathic Medicine's broad and lasting propagation of the chemical imbalance myth of mental illness (justifying the crafted "need" for their very profitable psychoactive drugs) and the cholesterol-heart disease myth (justifying the crafted "need" for their very profitable cholesterol-lowering drugs) are two stellar examples of why everyone's prime orientation probably ought to be to "Trust facts, not authorities" because these are cases where the real scientific facts are notably different from the fake claims of the authoritative-doctrinal medical syndicate.)

Other tryptophan side effects, or more accurately, serotonin side effects from the use of the "happy drugs" (SSRIs), have been uncovered.

Several research reports found that the long-term use of SSRIs leads to osteoporosis and hip fractures in both genders and at all age ranges, from adolescents to elderly people (Diem, et al., 2007; Haney, et al., 2007 & 2010; Williams, et al., 2008; Calarge, et al., 2007 & 2011), probably by increasing prolactin concentrations (Calarge, et al., 2007; Allport, 2008; Peat, Sept. 2011) and the stress hormone cortisol (Peat, Nov. 2008). Melatonin, for example, was denoted to stimulate prolactin release in healthy young women and men (Webley, et al., 1988; Okatani, et al., 1994; Kostoglou-Athanassiou, et al., 1998). Experiments on animals (e.g., Weinstock, et al., 1985) corroborated that melatonin amplifies the stress hormone prolactin.

What does serotonin do? Serotonin raises both prolactin (Jørgensen, 2007; Oberweis & Gragnoli, 2012) and cortisol (Peat, Nov. 2008). And, both of these substances contribute to osteoporosis (Peat, Sept. 2011).

In addition, it was also discovered that serotonin in the intestine, rather than merely in the brain from the influence of SSRIs, causes bone loss (Peat, Sept. 2011). Thus, “plain” serotonin, rather than some idiosyncratic effect of SSRIs, is causatively involved in osteoporosis. And arguably, the bone loss disease can be included on the list of tryptophan side effects since the amino acid is the basic precursor to serotonin.

The lucrative trend surrounding the "artificial" up-regulation of serotonin by drugs to, supposedly, improve brain function hadn't gone unnoticed by promoters of nutritional supplements. To get their share of the profitable marketing of serotonin as the vehicle to "emotional bliss", and to distinguish themselves from the drug companies, many supplement promoters have been claiming that tryptophan, the sole precursor for serotonin, is an effective, cheaper alternative to the serotonin-enhancing medications, and that this alternative is allegedly devoid of tryptophan side effects because it is a "natural" substance (some people have called it “natural Prozac” or "nature’s Prozac").

Besides the already mentioned reports on the destruction of brain antioxidants and the generation of free radicals in neuronal tissue by the amino acid, other brain dysfunction has been linked to tryptophan side effects from metabolites. One of the principal L-tryptophan catabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK or 3HOK), augments oxidative stress in the brain and is able to induce depression, epileptic seizures, and other brain damage (Guilarte & Wagner, 1987; Stone, 2003; Wichers & Maes, 2004).

Elevated levels of 3-HK and another neuroactive product of the kynurenine pathway, kynurenic acid (KA or KYNA), have also been found in people with schizophrenia, and the research indicates these substances are also involved in allied psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder, previously more often referred to as manic depression (Linderholm, et al., 2007; Erhardt, et al., 2009; Johansson, et al., 2013).

Among other brain-related tryptophan side effects are impaired learning capabilities from higher levels of serotonin (Peat, Spring & Summer 2009). This may relate to the findings of clinical investigations which reported that serotonin strongly decreased blood flow in the brain (Grome & Harper, 1983; Hajdu, et al., 1993; Aleksandrin, et al., 2005). Poor cerebral circulation means that brain cells receive less nutrients, oxygen, and energy, leading to poor cognitive performance.

Focused attention is not compromised, but rather improved, by a tryptophan deficiency in the brain (Mendelsohn, et al., 2009). Alongside the positive cognitive ramifications of improved blood circulation in the brain from a tryptophan deficiency, this is probably also the result of a corresponding lack of activation of excitatory dopamine neurons by certain tryptophan catabolites (Linderholm, et al., 2007; Erhardt, et al., 2009). As might be expected, the excessive stimulation of brain cells by dopamine hampers cognitive function which is evident in attention deficit disorder (ADD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This speaks against the routine use of tryptophan for ADHD and ADD, as to prevent cognitive-neurological tryptophan side effects.

The exposure to stressors or living under (progressively) stressful conditions, including during aging, increases the production of oxidative tryptophan degradation chemicals such as the kynurenines, particularly in the brain which may contribute to the cognitive decline with advancing age (Kepplinger, et al., 2005; Reyes Ocampo, et al., 2014), suggesting that such predicaments or contexts:

elevate the risk of tryptophan side effects, and
increase the body's requirement for certain vital micronutrients, in order to help it mitigate and combat the greater onslaught of some of these corrosive catabolic tryptophan products.
In animal experiments, for example, pyridoxine supplements (vitamin B6) prevented or ameliorated some of the deleterious kynurenine-mediated tryptophan side effects in the brain (such as memory/cognitive impairment) seen with pneumonia-incited bacterial meningitis (Barichello, et al., 2014).

Brain-related tryptophan side effects have also been reported in the scientific literature from one of the amino acid's end products, melatonin. Studies (e.g., Carman, et al., 1976; Dubocovich, et al., 1990) found that the addition of melatonin worsened depression, or, respectively, the suppression of melatonin improved symptoms of despair.
Tags: Фармакология
Subscribe

  • Post a new comment

    Error

    default userpic

    Your reply will be screened

    Your IP address will be recorded 

    When you submit the form an invisible reCAPTCHA check will be performed.
    You must follow the Privacy Policy and Google Terms of use.
  • 0 comments